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The Arab Spring commonly known as the Arab Revolutions or the Arabic Rebellions is a wave of revolutionary protests and demonstrations which was initiated in December 2010. As an outcome of this revolution, many rulers from the Middle East and connected regions such as Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, and Libya have been forced to give up power. In other regions such as Syria and Bahrain, there have been civil uprisings which disrupted the political and economic systems. Meanwhile, in Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Jordan, and Morocco, the revolution caused the break out of major protests. Besides these disruptions, Mauritania, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Western Sahara, and Sudan were subject to the minor uprisings (Al Jazeera, web).
Most of the protests have the civil resistance techniques in common that were applied to the revolutionary campaigns which involved demonstrations, strikes, rallies, and marches. They also made use of social media platforms in order to communicate, organize, and spread awareness to counter the attempts of state regarding Internet censorship and repression. After being inspired by the unrest in Tunisia and before entering as a prominent personality in the political affairs of Egypt, the prospective candidate for the presidency Mohamed ElBaradei had already warned the entire region and its people of the “Tunisia-style explosion” in Egypt (Shenker, Jack, web).
It was on January 25 that the protests in Egypt started and continued for the next 18 days. On the night of January 28, the government of Egypt made a successful attempt to cut off the internet access of the Egyptian nation. This action was taken for the purpose of inhibiting the abilities of the protesters to systematize with the help of social media. Afterwards, there emerged thousands of Egyptian citizens in the form of protestors in the chief cities of Egypt which forced President Mubarak to dismiss his government. Soon after, the President appointed a completely new cabinet with the appointment of the first Vice President in approximately 30 years. The startling event, which was able to overturn the old thinking regarding Arabs being indifferent in the direction of autonomy and democracy, still exuded anticipations to the citizens surviving under restraint (Malika, web).
The uprisings on the mass level,supported by the organizing strength of Facebook and Twitter,spread in a furious and fast manner. They first knocked down the president of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali from power on January 14 and then swept across the entire continent moving towards Egypt. The protestors in the capital of Egypt, Tahrir Square, were seen and photographed with the flags of Tunisia in January. They portrayed it as a symbol of thank to their North African fellows for the initiation of the happenings and chanted against their own president Hosni Mubarak.
On February 10, 2011, Hosni Mubarak relinquished all the presidential authority to the newly elected Vice President Omar Suleiman; however, soon after this, he declared to stay as president until the completion of his tenure. The protests still continued and went out of control, so Mubarak was forced to transfer all powers to the Armed Forces of Egypt and later resign from the presidency. The Egyptian Parliament was dissolved by the military, the Constitution of Egypt was suspended, and it was promised that the “emergency laws” prevailing during the last thirty years of the nation would be lifted.
The protests and uprisings in various countries affected by the Arab Awakening have obtained huge support on the international forum. There have been harsh responses from the governments which were condemned, while critics have blamed the Western governments along with UK, France, and the US of hypocritical reactions that they showed towards the Arab Spring.