Crime prevention is the unique attempt that aims at reducing victimization as well as deters crime and criminals. It is a government application with clear and specific policies to curb and prevents crime while enforcing the law and maintaining criminal justice. According to Lombroso one of the greatest Italian criminologists in late 1840s’ held that crime is a characteristic trait to humanity. He used concepts based on physiognomy, early eugenics and psychiatry to agitate his arguments.
He states that criminality was inherited and that someone born criminal can be identified by physical defects, which confirm a criminal as savage or atavistic. This philosophy is challengeable in the 21st century where crime seen takes a notch higher and practiced in a more sophisticated manner. However trainings contacted by crime investigative departments and the use of the sophisticated technological advancement in criminal investigation are divergent thus impede criminals punishable by law from walking freely in the society.
Lombroso suggested that criminals can be distinguished from non criminals via multiple physical anomalies. His arguments is that criminals are a reversion to primitive and possess subhuman characteristics through physical features such as reminiscent of apples, lower priminates and early man or other modern savages. He spoke on rapist behaviors in which are today viewed as a sexual crime happening in every two minutes in American society. Sexual crime prevention has been a major problem as society finds ways to find the ever growing epitome.
The Modern Society
Today we are in a modern society where criminals are equipped with technical and professional skills that are not easily identifiable based on Lombroso’s theory. The adaptation of technology has made it easier for criminal investigation agencies to increase consistency on dealing with such criminals. The inter boundary communications among nations is an effective means of tracing criminals in all sorts of behaviors without them noticing.
The Lombroso physical approach of identifying criminals is quite a prerogative insignificant though still a reliable theory that transcends years of history (e.g. today in the society through scanning the police departments take records of its nationals by capturing finger prints and picture passport so as to relate and identify criminal records through data analysis). Lombroso through his postmotern examinations and anthropemtric studies’ argues that criminals are born and could automatically been identified by looking at their physical natural organs such as the ears, long arms sloping foreheads or unusual size among many things.
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This is comprehensively a tactical approach as no mother would love to identify the baby as a criminal. He negates that criminals had less sensibility to pain and touch with more acute sight and even lack of moral senses. He also believed that most of the criminals hold a manifestation of tattooing, however, in today’s society tattooing has been adopted as an art of fashion. He believes that a person does not feel the pain associated with body tattoos as that is impetuous on criminal character. The society for long has related tattoos with criminals as his theory apprehends. He shows that tattoos were used by criminals for self identification as a motive for the criminal acts.
According to the American medical association, sexual violence and rape in particular is a highly under reported crime that is traumatizing women in the society. The reporting varies with government jurisdiction. According to the US Bureau of justice in 1999 statistics 91 % of rape victims are female and 9% are male and 99% of offenders being male. The statistics shows that women can report such crimes more that men does. Both reports also shows that sexual crimes. Statistics below (In the figure) below shows that rape happens after every five minutes in America and sexual assault after every two minutes. (McMurran, 2009)
Motivation behind sexual crimes
One of the biggest crimes in the world today is rape, a sexual assault that involves sexual intercourse, initiated by a person against unwilling person consent which usually occurs forcefully, under threat or with the person incapable of any valid consent (Beracqua, 2000).
Rape is referred to be punishable as a criminal case by criminal law. In California, rape is termed as an act of sexual intercourse, penetrated to a woman against her consent. Lombroso argued that Rapist could be identifiable in the nuance behaviors. According to the US department of justice, a woman is raped every two minutes, this shows a high crime rated which is posing a danger to the life of many American women of all societies. Lombroso’s theory aimed at addressing human habit n criminal behaviors that are deeply rooted on human cycle of ages and characteristic. He also asserts that it is easier to identify person character at early ages which lead to proper monitoring the changes of behavior and probably changing through trainings on moral values.
Barbaree et al (2008) argues that male rapist had less empathy on women who have been sexually assaulted by the unknown people and are also hostile towards nonsex offenders both male and female. In reality the sexual harassment ordeal goes years back in history proofing immoralities in the society. There is no theory of the motivation behind rape; however the rapist may have personal multi-factorial with which can be associated with behaviors such as hanger, power, sadism sychopathy or sexual pleasures and possibilities on the attitudes of men toward women in the society. Lombroso shows that a man who possesses characters of a rapist might them as weaker elements for their own sexual and punitive satisfaction and nothing better. This is a habit against human rights and violence against women and children who falls victims of sexual crimes. Laws that governs the victim’s e.g. American offenders and crime law is subject of jurisdiction as the law does not provide punishment in relation to the crime. A woman turns psychologically ill for the rest of her life yet at times encounter the offender in the street who can even be her own former husband walking freely. Susan Brownmiller, said that in her prehistoric times relating to the present, she believed that rape had played a critical function. She continued that it was nothing more or less than a conscious process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a state of fear. (Brownmiller, 1976)
Elements of Lombroso philosophy in relation to sexual crime prevention
It is clear that men are continuously committing the sexual crime based on individual relationship matters such as community factors and societal factors, drug abuse such as alcoholism are also associated with immoral acts of sexual crimes. The perspective on Lombroso human character and natural physical strength on men, can humiliate women eventually in a society curded with delinquent peers poverty and joblessness.
Lombroso shows the possibility of fantasies in a society where people go through forms of typical habits such as cultural basics in support of sexual violence coerciveness and other beliefs which prejudice immorality. On the other hand Lombroso creates a personal review on adjudicating an apprehensive ideology that equips women to be very decisive on the appearance of men they intend to relate with in marital affairs. He negates that one can be able to distinguish a responsible man from a criminal. Men at times can be doing ill acts based on societal superiority and take advantage of women and children through sexual crimes.
Lombroso ideology even though not clearly implemented towards the 21st century decision making, it appraise the factual practices of unethical society governed by unclear policies that sees offenders walk freely or even repeating sexual crimes. In cases of national violence for example, a man have no right to sexually abuse a child in front of their own parents and doing the same to the parent. Lombroso asserts that it is an inherited behavior on lack of morals. These happenings are experienced among nations fighting due to poor political leadership leading to sexual crimes and blood shade.
Lombroso critically weighs human character based on the content of how men and women view strangers in the society today. In a realistic point of view a criminal can easily be identified even on the looks of their eyes as most of them are associated with gilt. Human conscience according to Lombroso should not be ignored.
Lombroso asserts that if this natural physics on human can be identified then will create awareness on human to prevent them falling prey of criminals. The society is faced by challenges of antisocial tendencies, lack of institutional support and inefficient judicial systems. The law and policies related to sexual crimes regarding impersonal sex, emotionally unsupportive families, and inequality are not cordial.
In an essence’ the society has adopted learning habits on criminal behaviors due to interactions with deviant individuals. The rational which is technically learnt has got motives and varies frequently on peer influences that may lead to criminal acts.
The society has enacted various laws to protect rape victims and the value of women. The laws have developed protection mechanism guarding the bodily integrity and personal human autonomy to women as individuals. However’ the legal protection in place seems inconsistence as majority of rape cases are never reported making it a havoc of recurrence on women. There are many challenges that may be common with rape such as psychological challenges, and society view on victims which make many not to report as they may look odd in the neighborhood. The society is weaker and legally lame, in family cases where “wife rape” by husbands is seen as a less serious crime. This might even look stunning and evils than even being rape by a stranger and should be treated as a serious sexual violence. This is because the there is no credibility of rape and a victim has committed the contrary act against the consent. Technology through medical examination to identify cases on rape and curb what might be viewed to be false allegations is a thing of the past. Women also suffer mental health illness such as posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) (refer to figure 2 below)’ a study contacted by National Violence against Women Prevention Research Centre. The study shows that 31% of rape victims develop PSTD while one in every 10 victims (11%) suffers PSTD today. Most of the victims end-up as drug abusers while others contemplated on suicide.
Why people don’t report Rape
According to James Hudgson, he stated that it was true that rape is a most detestable crime, and hence rape offenders should severely and impartially be punished with death. However, it must be remembered that an accusation can easily be made and it is hard to prove a rape case, and it is even harder to be defended by the party accused. (Hudgson pg 104).
There are various challenges with the laws that claim to protect women rights, to dress how one feels publicly without any legal blame (e.g. short skirt) though in some societies such dressing can be view as a taboo which may arouse men to rape. Lombroso ideology therefore shows that human mental concentration on intolerance criminology is vital; this is because admissibility of victim in past sexual history and the style of dressing should not undermine women freedom as it doesn’t stop them from saying no.
Impact of technology in curbing crimes
Technology adaptation by various crime investigations has impacted the policing practices on curbing criminology. Among the relevant elements is communication, technical resources, institutionalized and accountability. The format of reporting criminal cases and has improved procedures and structures in the day-to-day routine of police operations. Law enforcement agencies are utilizing technology due to demand of quality management services; Technology is gradually changing how policing practices are conducted
In today society DNA testing and surveillance cameras within working organizations help to monitor ingenuity on individuals where bosses are know to sexually harass junior female employees. Laws have brought about human knowledge on self defense personal rights against humiliation at the work place. Technology has improved the criminal justices system and how rape cases are handled. However the cost is much higher and might affect those who cannot afford. The government should therefore allocate resources to bridge gaps by reporting cases and handling mischief’s to women. A victim spending dollars due to rape case may as well affect rape them.
Reinforcing stereotypes in a society that is criminally envisaged requires critical prevention programs that will safeguard community members from whatsoever harm. For many years laws have been developed and enacted trying to end crimes but human approach is contrary to own behavior. The sexual crime has been a load in government due to immoral characters within the society.
Curbing such crime requires stringent laws that will not allow an offender to continue the crime. Somehow education and training on women self defense can go along way to prevent such criminal activities building confidence among community members. It is vital to note that a government that does not provide adequate security to the publics will lead a sexually abusive state where women and children will be devastated on health and freedom. The ideology by Lombroso though merit is not aimed at intentionally causing suspicion but rather educative in the essence that the public must hate crime.