Domestication it is a progression of hereditary redeployment of world plant and animals into form adapting to the benefit of people. In addition, it refers to primary level of human domination of world plant and animals.
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Domesticated animals and plant have different morphological and behavioral aspects compared to wild animals and plant. The basic difference of domesticated animals and plant from their wild intimates is that, domesticated animals and plant are developed by human effort to sustain their requirement. Different variety of animals are domesticate for clothing such as silkworms and sheep, others for food such as pig, chicken and cattle, and for transport and labor purposes, for example, horses, donkeys and camels. In addition, many of the behavioral and morphological character that distinguishes them from their wild animals’ inmates include diminution in brain, diminished sexual dimorphism, changes in pelage, horn and body size, and transformation changes in shape of the horns.
Genetic changes will appear in population or creatures experiencing domestication as a result of both possibility and any change in assortment pressure accompanying the transformation from nature to captivity. In addition, to transform in gene occurrences, adaptation to the captive nature perhaps may be motivated by management behaviors that manipulate the development of biological characters. It is apparent that, with regard to animal behavior, domestication has pressurized the quantitative rather than qualitative character of the response.
Certain characters perhaps have been changed due to man’s role as a cushion between the animal and its environment. One of the substantial changes accompanying the domestication is the decrease in responsiveness to changes in the animal’s surroundings. Man having control over the breeding process and provision of food has led to decline competition for substantial resources.
Plants are domesticated for different purposes. Some plants are domesticated for producing fibers which are used in making net. Plant like tobacco is domesticated for producing narcotics. Therefore, human beings domesticate those plants that are of substantial benefit to human life.
The morphological distinction between wild plant and domesticated plant are relatively extreme. For example, the distinction between maize wild teosinte, modern maize consists of more than 20 row with numerous kernels exposed. On the other hand, teosinte produces 6 to 12 kernels. Scientist has been able to identify the morphological differences between domesticated plant and wild plant. Studies have shown that genes are responsible for the transformation. Researchers have also indicated that genes are responsible for morphological changes.
Domesticated plants are under control of a human being. Some of the domesticated plant can not survive without the care and the attention of the man. Man creates suitable environment for plants. For example, establishment of green houses to suit some domesticated plants such as horticultural crops.