Herto traces its origin to East Africa; the other name of Herto is Homo sapiens idaltu. Herto existed about 160,000-154,000 years ago (Foley). The first origin of these remains was Pleistocene Africa with the exact location being; middle Awash in Herto bouri a site in the Afar triangle in what is presently Ethiopia. Their cranial capacity is estimated to be 1450 cc (Matt Cart mill eta l); which is by far larger than that of most humans.

If viewed laterally, their skulls are high and long, according to Foley. Three skulls of herto were found and they had different characteristics altogether. They lacked distinct articular tubercles as well as sphenoid spine. (Henke et al.)


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This hominid was first discovered in caves of Mladec, in the Czech Republic. Mladec is estimated to have lived between 35,000-25,000 years ago. Their artifacts implied that they were Aurignacians. Whereby, they used cores “as opposed to flakes used by other older hominids”. They decorated their caves with artistic material “as well”. Their brain capacity range from 950 cm3 to 1800 cm3,this is the range of most modern men cranial capacity. Their history has not been well settled on as some disputes on what they could do are still in contention.


The first remains of Cro-Magnon’s area traced to France; the time of their existed is estimated to be between 27,000-23,000 years ago (O’Nei). Their brain capacity was 1370 cc, which is considered above the present man’s intelligence. They were tall as compared to other modern men and their limbs were straight. Their height was approximately from 166 to 171 centimeters. Culturally, they have been associated with Aurignacian culture since flint tools were found and associated with Cro-Magnon. They were big game hunters. They targeted and hunted cave bears, reindeers, horses and mammoths. It is assumed they were nomads or to some extent semi–nomadic.

According to Fagan, Cro-Magnon could adapt to harsh climatic conditions. They were organized into societies where they applied knowledge of netting to catch rabbits (Fagan). According to him, they were very opportunistic creatures. Anatomically, Cro-Magnon is like a modern human as the present species Homo sapiens does not differ greatly from them. They are able to roll their tongue in a better way as compared to humans. The first discovery was made in 1868.

Lake Mungo

Two skulls are associated with this modern man. The first lake Mungo skull was discovered in 1969 in Lake Mungo “in New South Wales State of Australia”. The second skull was discovered in 1974 at the same location. Mungos are estimated to have lived between 60,000-46,000 years ago during the Pleistocene epoch (O’Nei). Their cranial capacity is estimated to be1250 cc (Lahr 1996)

Homo floresiensis

Flores man is nicknamed hobbit. The origin of the first remains was discovered in Flores Indonesia in 2003. Time of their existence is estimated to be between 38,000 to 18,000 years ago (O’Nei). Homo floresiensis had small bodies with a small brain with a capacity of 380 cm3 (Brown eta l), while some sources quote 380cc – 417 cc. It is arguedthat this species of modern man lacked chin and had twisted arm bones. The skull has teeth resembling those of humans and a forehead that recedes. Homo florsiensis was bipedal and of approximately one meter in height.

They made and used stone, fire and stone tools as well as hunting pygmy elephants. Other hunted animals included giant rats, and komodo dragons (Foley).

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