1.Describe how Hawaii goes from being a separate nation to a protectorate of the U.S. and how the U.S. justified this imperial action.
At the beginning of the 19th century monarchy was installed on the Hawaiian islands under the rule of king Kamehameha the Great. In 1893, a group of white planters with the help of the US Minister of Hawaii John Stevens and a contingent of marines from the warship U.S.S. Boston overthrew the last queen Liliuokalani. Acting without the permission of US State Department, John Stevens declared that Hawaii became a US protectorate. On the one hand, those Americans and Hawaiians involved in the sugar industry encouraged the overthrow of the monarchy in order to serve their business needs. On the other hand, a lot of Hawaiians opposed the action and organized protests because they did not want to cede their sovereignty. Consequently, president Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because most citizens of these islands did not support revolution (Rayson 45).
Rayson, Ann. Modern History of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bess Press, 2004. Print
2.What were the conditions that led to the Progressive Movement and describe three of its’ issues?
The Progressive Movement flourished in the years between the Depression in 1893 and US entry into the World War I as Americans tried to come to terms with changes brought by industrialization, urbanization, and rise of a corporation. This was a complex mixture of social criticism, popular protest, political restructuring, economic regulation, and social welfare legislation. Three most significant conditions that contributed to the movement were urbanization, industrialization and immigration. The previously rural-dwelling nation moved to town in large numbers causing urbanization. Back on farm agriculture became decisively mechanized and this was already a manifestation of industrialization. Adding to this, large numbers of new immigrants arrived, many from cultures that differed markedly from that of their adopted nation (Frankel 128).
The Progressive Movement wanted to improve the American society. It had political overtones and aimed at achieving specific purposes, particularly: 1) grant women the right to vote because their votes were considered to be the pure ones; 2) form a government that would play an essential role in solving social problems and eliminate corruption from it; 3) create fair economic conditions and take over control of large businesses (Frankel 145).
Frankel, Nora Lee. Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. Lexington: Univ. Pr. of Kentucky, 1995. Print.
3.Describe the work and influence of Jane Addams
Jane Addams was a famous activist of Progressive Movement, widely known for social reforms she proposed and peace advocating. She is remembered till today for fighting for people’s rights, rights of immigrants and better treatment of the poor. One of her most remarkable achievements was the foundation of Hull Houses that proclaimed the beginning of the social settlement movement. With the help of people living in these settlements, she made possible a lot of social projects, like garbage collection, education for adults, suffrage for women, child labor reform, and creation of labor unions (Hamington).
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Jane Addams also assisted in foundation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. She was a writer, and the most frequently recurring themes in her works were peace, education and women’ advancement. She devoted to such her works as Newer Ideals of Peace and Peace and Bread in Time of War to the topic of peace. In The Spirit of Youth and City Streets Jane Adams described the plight of the young generation and challenges it faces at that age. The work The Second Twenty Years at Hull House described pedagogical techniques for people who decided to start learning during their adulthood (Hamington).
Hamington, Maurice. “Jane Addams (1860-1935)”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 30 Oct. 2006. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
4.Describe the origins of the Social Gospel, who was its leading figure and how was it different than the Prosperity Gospel?
The Social Gospel was a Protestant Christian movement the primary aim of which was the application of Christian ethics to the existing societal problems. It was especially focused on the elimination of injustice in people’s community, as well as excessive wealth and poverty, racial tensions and child labor, etc. Social Gospel movement was triggered mainly by industrialization and modernization and was almost entirely focused in the USA. It also supported the idea of Social Darwinism, according to which some weaker people and even whole societies are to die off partially because of industrial capitalism’s pressure (Bateman).
One of the leading figures in the Social Gospel movement was pastor Washington Gladden. He was well known for advocating workers’ rights to create labor unions in his book Working People and Their Employers. The key difference between the Social Gospel and the Prosperity Gospel lies in the fact that the first movement opposed excessive wealth and its main concern was society’s improvement, while according to the ideology of the second one, people who have more material wealth and make more donations to the church and its priests in this way will multiply their wealth and become more prosperous (Bateman).
Bateman, Bradley W. “The Social Gospel and the Progressive Era”. National Humanities Center, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
5. Describe three reasons why Teddy Roosevelt was a progressive president.
Theodore Roosevelt was considered to be a progressive president mainly because of the laws he passed that were directed towards assuming control over corporations, his conservation policy and the importance he placed on the consumer protection. During the period of Roosevelt’s presidency, the issue of relations between employers and employees was a hot topic for discussion. Workers strived to achieve more rights and wanted to feel more protected, while large corporations desired to have cheap labor force that would bring them prosperity. Theodore Roosevelt was the one who passed laws to regulate workplace and establish minimum wages (“The Progressive Presidents”).
Another issue he was concerned about and because of which he was also viewed as the progressive president was the environment. Many people considered that natural resources are unlimited, and a lot of companies used them in large quantities and at dangerously quick rate. All they cared about was profit. Theodore Roosevelt supported environmentalists’ claim that nature must be protected by people and passed laws to make it possible. Among them was Newslands Act of 1902 that promoted irrigation projects and building of dams. He also passed a law that addressed the issue of timberlands’ devastation. By this, he set aside 125 million acres of timberlands and declared them federal reserves. Finally, a highly progressive step was made by Theodore Roosevelt in the sphere of consumer protection. The Department of Commerce and Labor was established the main idea of which was to force corporations to engage in fair business practices. Another law entitled Pure Food and Drug Act was to ensure that American citizens are buying healthy and not dangerous for life products and drugs (“The Progressive Presidents”).
“The Progressive Presidents.” Study Notes, 2008. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
6.Describe how the U.S. was able to procure the right to build the Panama Canal and how did it affect the nation of Columbia?
Panama Canal was designed as an international waterway that was to allow ships to pass from the Atlantic into Pacific Ocean without having to make a journey around the South America. The thing is Panama was a part of Colombia and Americans were to ask Colombian government’s permission to do this. In 1903, a treaty was signed between the two parties, American Secretary of State John. M. Hay and Dr. Tomas Herran of Colombia. In case if it was ratified, the USA would have been acquired a 6 mile strip across Panama, which was a part of Colombia at that time, in the lease for 10 million dollars and annual payment 250 000 dollars. Nevertheless, it didn’t happen, because, while Americans ratified the treaty, Colombia did not and ,as a result, it was not ratified. That is why Americans went another way – they gave political and military support to Panamanian uprising which led to its independence. A newly created country signed the treaty with the USA and allowed the construction of Panama Canal. Consequently, Colombia lost a part of its territory, and the USA built the Canal that simplified water journeys (“How the US Stole Panama – Part 1”).
“How the US Stole Panama – Part 1.” Eyes on Colombia, 30 Sept. 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
7.Why did the U.S. enter World War I, what effects did the war have on civil liberties, and whether or not, this was a “just war.”
At the beginning of the World War I the USA proclaimed neutrality, but it was rather difficult to stay totally isolated from the struggle in Europe. The event that caused America to enter the war was sinking of Lusitania. The matter is, there existed a law according to which no country was allowed to attack passenger ships without warning. Nevertheless, in 1915 Germany violated it and sank sea liner Lusitania, causing the death of 1200 people, including 128 Americans. This event in some respect pointed to unpreparedness of the USA to the upcoming war. As a result, American government took immediate action: enlarged the army, built powerful navy, and mobilized industry. After Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare on all shippings, the USA decided to break diplomatic relations with this country. Zimmerman Telegram, according to the content of which Germany was seeking alliance with Mexico in order to go into war against the USA, and subsequent Russian Revolution forced Woodraw Wilson to enter the war in order to save democracy (Dwyer).
World War I affected dramatically civil rights of the American citizens. The laws were passed to silence the dissent: people suspected in disloyalty were put into prisons and some newspapers were censored. Freedom of speech was limited and total propaganda was to ensure that every American considers Germany to be the evil force in World War I. Frequent cases in courts were those connected with espionage and sedition. People who tried to impede the government’s war efforts were viewed as criminals. Speeches that were criticizing war and draft were considered to be illegal (Dwyer).
It cannot be stated for certain that World War I was a just war, as well as it cannot be viewed as totally unjust. On the one hand, it was just because allied powers were fighting with the aggressor, they tried to end the war as soon as possible, but their attempts failed. On the other hand, millions of lives were lost, and enormous land damage was inflicted. And most significantly, according to the Christian doctrine, people cannot take each other’s lives because this is a grave sin (Dwyer).
Dwyer, John J. “The United States and World War I”. Lew Rockwell.com, 2004. Web. 29 Oct. 2012.
8.Explain why the Great Depression was precipitated by an economic perfect storm.
It is generally considered that no economic depression can be caused by improper operations of free markets. Their real causes can be found in mismanagement of governmental policies. Many economists view the Great Depression as a perfect storm of policy failures. What is meant by this? It means that the Great Depression was preceded by a string of simultaneous destructive policies. At the moments when economy seemed to be showing some signs of recovery governmental actions did not allow them to develop into improvement (Pongracic). There can be traced several examples of bad policies that were carried out before or during the Great Depression. For example, in response to decrease of tax revenues in 1930 the US government increased taxes and in this way obviously slowed down the possible recovery. Another sample of bad governmental action was the tight money policy, as a result of which money supply was significantly restricted. One more example of incorrect policy can be public works programs that removed people from labor markets and instead engaged them in economically wasteful activities (Pongracic).
Pongracic, Ivan. “The Great Depression According to Milton Friedman”. The Freeman, Sept. 2007. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
9.Describe Roosevelt’s New Deal and whether you consider it a success or not.
The New Deal was a governmental program that consisted of three elements: relief, recovery, and reform. By relief it presupposed giving jobs to unemployed, by recovery – economic growth, and by reform – regulation of the Wall Street, economy, and banks. According to the Emergency Banking Act, all banks were shut down by Roosevelt’s order and their inside situation was thoroughly inspected. It also established Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, that insured deposits up to 5000 dollars. This law reestablished faith in banks and after some time two thirds of banks were allowed to open. Civil Works Administration gave jobs to unemployed in the sphere of building and repairing roads, parks, airports. National Industrial Recovery Act revived industry by raising wages, reducing working hours and managing unbridled competition. Finally, Social Security Act established pensions for senior citizens, created benefit payments for unemployed mothers and the disabled, and made possible unemployment insurances. If to try to assess the success of the New Deal, it is needed to define the success in this context. It cannot be stated that it eliminated poverty and unemployment, but it is responsible for getting the wheels of the industry turning. The New Deal symbolized the beginning of change for the better in economic situation (“The New Deal”).
“The New Deal.” United States History, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
10.What was the “Lost Generation” and describe the work of one representative.
During the 1920s, the literary movement appeared in Europe that later came to be known as the Lost Generation. These were writers the works of which signified their moral loss and aimlessness. They were creative people who, after seeing the horrors of the World War I, considered that good things will not happen, even when people act virtuously. These writers did not believe in moral guideposts anymore and ardently criticized American society . Among the most frequent themes that occurred in their works were self-exile, carefree living, and spiritual alienation (Cole 165).
The most prominent representatives of the Lost Generation were Francis Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson, Kay Boyle, Hart Crane, Zelda Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway. In fact, due to the last one, Ernest Hemingway, these writers are referred to as the Lost Generation, because it was he who used the phrase “une generation purdue” in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises. Main characters of his novels were people who lost hope and faith in modern society. The first work of Ernest Hemingway, The Side of Paradise, describes people who struggled in war and did not believe in God anymore. The style of this writer of the Lost Generation is characterized by brief and straightforward sentences. Ernest Hemingway ended his life by committing suicide, presumably because he felt that all virtues in life have disappeared (Cole 193).