Philosophy and science are two interconnected activities, directed at the studying of the world and people living in this world. Philosophy aspires to learn everything: visible and invisible, felt by the sense organs of a person, real and unreal. There are no borders for philosophy – it aspires to understand everything, even the illusory. Science studies include only what it is possible to see, touch, weigh, etc.
Philosophy and science are closely interconnected; they study a world picture, mutually supplementing each other. There is a philosophy progress with the science development: materialism should change its form with every discovery in natural sciences.
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The common laws and tendencies of the scientific cognition as a special sphere based on the production of scientific knowledge taken in its historical development and considered in historically changing social and cultural context.
Karl Popper is one of the most famous philosophers of the science of the 20th century. He was also a social and political philosopher of a vast scale who declared himself to be a “critical rationalist”. The most important line of Popper’s philosophy is that, researching the science philosophy, he paid much attention to the problems of social development. Popper declared that philosophy had the function of formation and development of the scientific knowledge.
According to Popper, science is a dynamic system assuming a continuous change and the growth of knowledge. This situation determined another role of philosophy of a science in scientific knowledge: the problem of philosophy was reduced not to the knowledge justification as it was in neopositivism, but to the explanation of its change on the basis of a critical method.
Thomas Kuhn is an American historian and the philosopher of a science considering that scientific knowledge develops spasmodically, by means of scientific revolutions. Scientific revolution is a change of psychological paradigms by the scientific community.
Briefly, Kuhn’s theory consists in the following: the periods of quiet development (the periods of “a normal science”) are replaced by the crisis which can be resolved by the revolution replacing the dominating paradigm. Kuhn understands the conventional set of concepts as a paradigm, the theory and methods of research which give the model for the goal-setting and their decisions by the scientific community.
The variety of the philosophy of science concepts, developed within post-positivism, caused many new problems. Awareness of hopelessness of the creation of the conventional theory describing a structure and development of a science became the result of it. This circumstance influenced the next stage in positivism philosophy – post-positivism.