Example of famous projects that have failed because of relatively simple error

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) was a project designed by NASA in February 2009; unfortunately, a research spacecraft crashed into the ocean soon after launch. The purpose of this project was to measure carbon dioxide distribution in the atmosphere of Earth. The reason of this failure was that the launch rocket of OCO did not eject the shroud weighing  a spacecraft down, thus it did not reach the orbit.

Couldn’t IEEE have made a single frame format for all the forms of local area networks?

Though the seven layers of the OSI model was developed to support all kinds of local area networks communication including LANs, VLANs and WLANs, it failed to cater to them, thus there was a need for a separate framework for each of them. For this reason, IEEE standards have split the data link layer into two sub-layers: the medium access control sub layer and the logical link control sub layer. Wireless LANs based on the IEEE 802.11WG does not have a topology in the same physical way as that of wired LANs for which it has a separate standard. Since different kinds of LANs possess different bit rates, access schemes, modulation schemes and source and destination formats they cannot merely follow a single standard. (Al Petrick, 2005)

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Are the hackers criminals, or are they heroes helping computer specialists discover faults?

Nowadays, the hackers often apply distributed denial of service attacks on e-commerce websites creating chaos and inconvenience to the organizations. A large number of systems attack a single target causing denial of service for users. This is not only a malicious and unethical act but also a threat to a prosperous society. In some countries it is illegal and there are laws and regulations which prevent systems from these hackers. (Thomas J. Holt, 2010)

Are people spending too much time on social network sites such as Facebook?

Social networking sites are getting more and more popular these days especially among the youth. However, it is alarming to note that people are getting addicted to these sites like Facebook spending most of their time with it ignoring their families and social responsibilities. It does not only affect their physical and mental health but also has an adverse impact on social bonds, particularly in families. According to a recent study, an average person spends 5-5.5 hours on social networking sites daily which has increased tremendously over the past 3 years. (Todd Kelsey, 2010)

Will the distinction between local telephone calls and long distance calls ever disappear?

What may cause this to happen?

Local calls are the ones which occur in the vicinity of your house (up to 16 miles), whereas long distance calls occur at a greater distance. However, there is the third service type known as LATA which include calls outside the local range but not as far as the long distance ones. It has been predicted that the distinction between the local and long distance telephone calls will dissapear in the upcoming decades, since LATA boundaries would not be distinct to understand the importance of integrated service providing systems. The accessibility costs and the local service costs would be not much different in the near future. As the differences of long distance and local calls will disappear, the exchange rates will be merged together and will leave no space for the LATAs. Another challenge for telecommunication would be the portability of local numbers which will let the consumers to sustain their phone numbers, no matter which carriers they switch to.

Biometric technologies

Examples of biometric technologies used for system authentication. Are any of these an infringement on privacy? Why or why not?


There are a number of physiological and behavioral characteristics currently used for automatic identification which include: fingerprints, voice, iris, hand, face, retina, keystroke, finger shape and handwriting. Fingerprints are in high demand for authentication of employees in public and private organizations whereas banks use iris scanning for the ATM customers. However, people believe that some of these biometric identification methods are violating their privacy, for example, an employee sharing his fingerprints at his workplace considers himself to be treated like a criminal to keep his fingerprints records. Others believe that it is indecent in a civilized society to keep cameras recording every movement of people. For this reason, it has been demanded to create proper laws to limit the collection of biometric data for identification everywhere.

Certified networkengineer

Is the importance of a certified network engineer going to be replaced with individuals that do not have a certificate but have much experience or a college degree? Why?

To start the career after getting the bachelor’s degree from college, it has been suggested by the experts to start off the professional career by working either voluntarily or as a full time employee. Experience cannot be replaced by anything else. A certified network engineer may be preferred but an individual holding a college degree with hands-on experience as a network engineer is more important. Having a certification in network engineering will definitely add up to your resume but people, who have a bachelor’s degree or much experience in network engineering, are definitely preferred by most organizations. But, it also depends on the nature of the job as different systems require different skill set. Having a certification means that one can do the job properly. A certification is really important in today’s corporate world but that does not ensure in any way that in contrast to the certified individual, a bachelor’s degree holder or an experienced individual would not be preferred.

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