Charles married his son Philip to Queen Mary 1 of England to elevate him to the queen’s rank. Philip married her for purely political reasons. The marriage agreement was that Philip was to co-reign with Queen Mary 1; all Acts of parliament were to contain their joint names and all coins were to contain both their heads. The queen died in 1558. Her death made his son Philip loose the rights to the throne which he enjoyed and he could no longer became King of Ireland and England. He consequently lost control over England, a situation that may have made him resentful.

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Charles’ goal was to rejuvenate the Roman Catholic in England which was dominated by the Anglican protestant church. The death of his son’s wife made it difficult for him to achieve his goal. His hopes of placing a catholic member on the throne of England were further thwarted by the execution of Queen Mary of Scotland. He opted for direct invasion of England to forcefully return the Catholic Church to power. This operation failed and the Spaniards were forced to retreat. This defeat renewed the Protestant cause not only in England but the whole of Europe. His unsuccessful attempts to rejuvenate the Roman Catholic by using his political power may have made him resentful that saw him retreat to a monastery.

Charles V had achieved so much success as a military and political leadership that he earned so much respect. During his reign as the King, Spain was the most powerful throne in Western Europe. He won most of the wars that Spain fought with other European monarchies.   Charles V may have opted to join the monastery since he may have achieved all his worldly goals and therefore wanted to devote his time to spiritual issues. Charles V was also a devout catholic which is evident from the many wars he engaged to defend the Roman Catholic Church from the Protestant Church. He must have considered devotion to the Church as the most important thing in life. It is possible to be happy in a monastery after years of worldly success since spiritual nourishment gives a person peace of mind and joy.

The invention of the movable printing press in 1400 is widely considered as the most significant event during the second millennium AD. The movable printing press revolutionized religious, political, civil and social life. Prior to invention of the movable printing press, learning institutions were mostly dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. These institutions emphasized on religious education. However, the invention of the printing press gave rise to secular universities. Learning was no longer restricted to books found in monasteries. Students were no longer studying religious education. This resulted in a shift from the existing religious focus and worshiping God to secular interests. The rise of science changed the way people perceived the world, making it to replace religion.

The inventions of the movable printing press lead to the democratization of knowledge. People were able to access knowledge. They could access current and historical information and therefore began questioning political authority. In addition, the role of Latin as a language in publishing literacy works began to decline as it was replaced by vernacular languages. This meant that knowledge was no longer restricted to the ruling elite who understood Latin. The use of vernacular languages in print as opposed to Latin also lead to increased nationalism that led to the rise of nations in Europe.

Invention of the movable printing press created the scientific revolution in Europe. Scientists could communicate more easily about their discoveries through scholarly journals that were widely disseminated. The rapid text production meant that an author could easily become a best seller. Authorship became more profitable because written books and articles were in high demand which incited people to come up with new ideas. The mass production of printed books increased economic activities in Europe which improved the standards of living and lead to development of new towns.

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