Play is a very crucial part of all children’s development. It encourages simple but clear development of the imagination which is vital for great innovation in our world. The concentration and memory play are crucial for social development. It gives an opportunity for the kid to try different roles that are taken by adults. This allows them to solve problems in different situations and scenarios.

Activities that promote and develop attention span and memory in 0-2 yrs

One of the best activities that can be considered in developing and promoting attention span and memory is the use of grocery shopping. Kids should be taught five to six things that are needed. These things should be repeated to him or her for a number of times.  Usually, use of a sing song voice works perfectly. This is followed by asking the kid to remind an adult of what is still needed in the house.

The use of visual schedules is another activity that works admirably. They always remind them of what is coming up as well as what should be expected.

Calming strategies work perfectly, especially when practiced before a kid goes to bed at night. Reading stories best applies in this situation. The use of back messages should as well be involved. A lot of patience is needed with the time it takes for a kid to feel that she or he is secure enough to fall asleep.

The white noise machines are commonly used by most parents. The machine is highly valued due to its ability of producing different sounds. For example, it produces heartbeat, rains, as well as wave sounds. The white noise setting is the one that is commonly used. The reason behind this is due to the fact that the white noise setting blocks out other noises and appears to sooth them. The white noise settings also keep the room scaled down, warm and with quite music. At the moment, the lights should be off to make sure that a child sleeps well.

The basics should always be carefully reviewed before kids prepare for a play session. This involves use of words, listening to other words and consideration of gentle hands. This should only be practiced by children above 1½ years. At this age, TV, books and movies that demonstrate social skills and friendships should be avoided.

2-4 years

During this stage, most children start to become active. It is, therefore, advisable for parents to be extra careful. Preventive strategies should be well applied. 

A growing child always needs extra supervision, lower expectations and extra help from his/her parents, teachers or caregivers. Love or money does not hold any chance to change a child. Parents, therefore, must always be present in order to advocate, accommodate, advice and assist their children as much as they can without inappropriate expectations and judgments. Everyone should always expect less from a child rather than more.

Children under this category are usually in an understanding position. Teachers or parents should take a child through comprehensions exercises. They should, therefore, request a child to read 3 to 4 sentences and ask him/her about the activities that are taking place in the story.  If a guardian comes across a story that had been read already or the one that a kid is familiar with, there should be some changes made in the story.

All the necessary words should be pointed out and a child should be asked to explain the activity of every page. They should be encouraged to repeat word by word as the lesson goes on.

Kids should also be encouraged to write at this stage. Teachers, as well guardians, should develop a habit of printing individual letters in order to effectively take a child through. They should then introduce the young kid to copying the same in an alphabetical order. They should then be shown to string letters together, so they would learn about spacing. When practicing this, case letters should start the sentences, uppercase should be used for names and lowercase letters should be used at the end of the sentences.

4-7 years and 11 months

At this stage children should be taken through language lessons. They should, therefore, be introduced to spelling and letter recognition activities. When walking to school, verbal spelling is done. This eliminates fine printing motor struggles that lead to fewer struggles.

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 The child should be appropriately answered when he/she asks a question. He/she should also be allowed to give suggestions and opinions. Different sentences should be repeated and rephrased correctly and not in a negative way. This gives the kid an opportunity to have the best ways of saying whatever they want. Kids should also be constantly reminded to use names of objects and people. In this case, music should be incorporated into a game.

Calendars should also be used in a child’s room. This assists the kid to cross off the days. It also shows a concrete length of a period until different dates, such as Halloween, Christmas and birthdays. This helps the child to be familiar with a calendar, thus he/she can use the time available in a wise manner.

Role that Function Memory and Concentration Play has in Children’s Learning

Learning how to practice memory and concentration play is an important activity for children’s emotional and intellectual development. This effectively assists children to work out different situations that are present in their environment that include social dynamic in their teams. This memory and concentration games assist in teaching counting, rules, reading, as well as other skills that are relevant in education. Clay, block building and many other creative activities assist a child in seeing how things normally work.

Play is a very crucial part of all children’s development. It encourages simple but clear development of the imagination, which is vital for great innovation in our world. The concentration and memory play is crucial for social development. It gives a kid an opportunity to try different roles that are taken by adults. This allows him/her  to solve problems in different situations and scenarios. For instance, one may watch a kid pretending to cook some food but if it burns, they are not content with ruining some part of this food.

Memory and concentration play can as well be instrumental for a child who is developing his/her interests. This is due to the fact that they are intrinsically motivated to pursue. It can also aid them in coming up with self-regulation of the unstructured time if moved from one activity that is scheduled during the unstructured time of play.

Concentration and memory play is fundamental to children`s development at their early age. Play is more beneficial to academic growth and success than the isolated skill drills. Through encouraging and motivating children, they normally learn important social skills and get the ability to solve various problems. Due to the fact that the playtime is not a pressure environment, hesitance and anxiety are minimized. This emphasizes a relaxed and funny approach to children’s learning.

The Role of Self-Expression and Creativity in Children’s Sensory and Intellectual Development

Self-expression is one of the vital requirements when it comes to child development and growth. Children, brought up in an environment that helps them to learn and recognise the importance to love and respect other people, end up having a good time in their social life. This is because they are able to understand the importance of living in harmony. They are also able to open up to others and express their feelings about an emerging issue. Children who lack this aspect during their early lives mostly face great problems, such as emotional and mental complications.

Artistic Expression

Creativity creates a sense of contentment in a child. An Arts class is one of the subjects that have been made compulsory for all lower primary classes. This is because this class enhances children’s creativity level. As a result, if a child is able to complete these classes, he/she gains a special development of his/her mind. Arts allow a child to mould something using his/her own creativity.  If appreciation is offered to this child then he/she is able to feel as an achiever and starts to believe in himself/herself, so he/she will be able to do much better later in his/her life. Creativity also allows a child to enjoy the process as it enhances his/her senses of touch, sight, smell and hearing. This is achieved through the sensory materials offered to kids.

Children are also able to learn from others and manage to learn how to accommodate and live with other children. This is achieved through the interaction that is brought about while playing with other children. Most children games involve dolls, toys and trying to create something out of the moulding materials. Thus, we are able to see that creativity promotes a child’s social development. 

Arts, being one of the classes which involve creativity, usually involve a lot of experiments, as well as observations. Through this, a child’s cognitive development is enhanced. Children are able to learn how to count and measure, amongst other factors. Letting a child to express him or herself is one way of knowing how he/she views life and what surrounds him/her. Self-expression allows a kid to feel proud of his/her achievements. Also, it triggers child’s physical skills.

Playful expression

Allowing children to choose their playmates freely makes the child to be in a better position to learn the importance of team work and cooperation with other people.  When children play together, a lot of shouting and talking is experienced. This may help a child to build up a better foundation in his/her language development. Children are also able to learn and understand ways and terms involved when it comes to relating with others.

Parents, as well as caregivers, play a great role in terms of teaching a child how to express himself/herself. For example, one of the ways, in which self-expression can be taught to a child, is through helping him/her out in making different constructions. These constructions can be mostly made of their playing toys, like doll houses, cars etc. Teaching a child to follow the instructions, read out to him during this process, makes him/her understand why there are guidelines in different situations. This helps to think in a creative manner; ask them later how they could apply a technique as to manage to raise a final thing like what his/her father had made. Through teaching a child the importance to follow guidelines, parents prepare their children to be creative later in their life, since most life situations expect one to relate or consider the skills, taught to him/her during his/her early years.

Discuss the Role that Music, Books and Stories Play in Encouraging Children’s Creative Expressions

Children learn from what they hear and see. Music can either destroy or build a child’s character. More stories help to enhance a child’s imagination. Children always have a tendency of wanting to know more about what they read or hear and what is interesting to them. They take the author of an article or song to be their role models. As a result, they end up researching more about this person. If the person observes good moral values, then the child aims to do all to correspond to his/her idol. This also happens with those who opt to have role models whose moral values are rotten.

 A child may lack an ability to distinguish good from bad, and due to the urge of knowing the musician, he/she may end up getting lost and following the wrong direction in life. Parents are highly advised to always have a close relationship with their children so as to be their legal advisors on such matters. Children need a lot of attention when it comes to the matters of choosing their role models. A child who loves music will be seen mostly trying to dance to the songs rhythm; this will enhance a child’s creativity in that he/she might invent a new dancing style that will make him or her famous amongst his/her age mates. This creates the inner sense of achievement that will always urge this child to be ready to try new things in his/her way. Books and stories play the same role as well. Stories are mostly written by different authors, and all of them involve a lot of creativity in their work. As a result, a child`s mind is triggered to think outside the box.

This makes a child have a clear view about life and desire to be more creative than the author. This desire makes a child to be creative and he/she may end up being a story writer or a story teller. Parents can enhance a child’s creativity level by ensuring that they choose the books and songs that their children listen to, as the content loaded in their mind is what creates or gets to destroy their child’s behaviour.

One of the developments that every child undergoes is that one related to language development. This varies from one child to another. The variance is usually brought about by different factors such as:

Inadequate stimulation

Language entails a set of rules that are shared amongst people in a society. Thus, social stimulation, in return, highly affects babies` language stimulation. To ensure that a child grows up well and is able to speak fluently, it is recommended that parents ensure that they engage into frequent talks with their babies, as well as read to them various articles and books. This will help a child to gain the syntax factor which will help to develop pragmatics and phonology factors as well. Magan, one of the greatest Certified Practising Speech Language Pathologist (CPSP) in Australia, defines inadequate stimulation as a primary factor affecting one`s speech. Thus, we find that engaging oneself in frequent communication with a baby, either verbally or through sign language, increases chances for a child’s language to develop faster. This helps children to acquire knowledge of how language is used.

Exposing a Child to Many Languages

This is highly experienced with children who are mostly brought up in urban areas. Most people believe that urban areas create a better opportunity when it comes to job opportunities and classic life. This belief, thus, ends up attracting a great number of people from different corners of the world to move to the closest town, so they can secure those available chances. As a result, different tribes end up meeting and living as a community (Erikson, 1968).

Children from each community are taught their mother language. The problem occurs when these children meet either to play or in school, and each of them will experience a great problem, since they will not understand what the others from a different tribe are saying. Toddlers who get themselves in such situations end up experiencing a great problem on deciding which language to use. They are torn between the two languages – their parent’s language or their friends`. As a result, this child may take long before being able to speak fluently.

Medical Problems

Children with ear problems, such as experiencing fluids in the ear, impacted earwax and frequent ear infection, have a higher chance of experiencing slow language development. This is because a child experiences difficulties in his or her hearing and may not hear the right thing, while others hear totally nothing. A child speaks what he/she hears and sees; children in the above situation will, thus, be slow language developers, since they experience hearing problems, and, thus, they will end up not knowing how to express themselves. In such situations, sign language would work for these kids, as well as ensuring that they receive the correct medication.

 Family History of Language Delays

Children, whose parents are from a family, well known for language delay problems, are at a higher risk of going through the same. This is due to the genetical distribution amongst the family members.

Quality of Child Care

Children from big families, especially where there are more than five siblings, may experience delayed language development. This is because the ratio of children is higher than that one of caregivers, whereby we take the caregivers to be the two parents. The caregivers are not able to dedicate themselves to each child fully, since the number of children is too big. Thus, some children may experience poor-quality child care (Patterson, 2008). From the above we can make a conclusion that frequent reading and chats with a baby increase the chance for a child to develop faster in terms of vocabulary. Thus, children from big families lack this experience; as a result their language development rate is lowered. In 2007 this was proved by a research published by the University of North California at Chapel Hill. “Children in higher quality care had more advanced language development, especially at 24 and 36 months.”

Identify and Compare Different Methods of Obtaining Information about a Child’s Language

Milestone charts are used as methods whereby the caregiver is expected to check alongside what is stated on the chart and relate it to his/her child’s age and activities. This helps one to know if his/her child is developing normally or whether he/she is slow in development. This method is almost related to the assessment method whereby it involves having a close check on the child’s activities. Verbatim is another method, which involves writing down a word, which is being said by a child in certain conversation. Through this method a parent is able to know how his/her child is able to relate with other people.

Explore Different Ways of Establishing an Effective Language-Rich Environment

A language-rich environment is whereby one can express him- or herself, share his/her thoughts about an idea and whereby in a discussion people understand the need to take turns. This kind of environment helps kids to experience love and learn from each other. This can be achieved by minding one`s language when addressing children. For example, the use of difficult vocabularies may affect the kid`s understanding, since he/she cannot comprehend what you are talking about (Berk, 2009).  Every parent needs to understand his/her child and should be mindful when talking with them. The caregiver should mostly talk about things that child can see so as to help a child to understand better what he/she is saying. They should also give a child enough time to respond to the questions they ask. This will help a child to arrange his/her words and choose what to say correctly. Intonation and emphasis should be highly used. If a child is having difficulties in acquiring language, gestures, limiting ones words, are highly recommended.

Early Years Curriculum and Essential Qualities of a Broad-Based, Balanced and Relevant Curriculum

The early years’ curriculum is one that introduces all beginners in learning basic things, which are necessary, and without which one would lack a good background in education. The early years’ curriculum requires all children starting school to be able to read and scribble down small structured sentences. This curriculum assumes that the child’s caretaker should be the first role models and teachers of young children. It also experts that a child should know how to punctuate a sentence correctly, while moving to the upper primary classes. This is a curriculum that offers children a chance to be taught how to write down their names as well (Pinker, 1994).

A broad and balanced curriculum is one that is expected to support both the teachers and the pupils’ welfare in school. A balanced curriculum is one that pupils are comfortable with and are able to achieve all their best in their studies while it runs. This is also a curriculum that considers the abilities and interests of each and every student. 

The Role of Adult Planning

Career development is a continuous process that requires frequent planning assistance. Adult planning is an activity that gives profitable chances to individuals with an urge to seek out advice from instructors on their career planning process.

Through this, an individual who is confused about his/her career development stands a chance to get the required information on his/her issue. Adult planning is an activity that helps people to acquire information not only about their career life but also about their day to day life; this is well explained with the life role models. The life role models explain that one really need to check out on his/her priority list, from which one gets to choose, so that he/she can acquire balance in his/her responsibilities. Through these, people are taught how to balance their time. This helps many to achieve their goals in life due to the balanced schedule between work and their home chores. The three models of career and adult development, identified by Keierleber and Sundal- Hansen, deeply explain the abovementioned statement. These models relate and explain some issues that affect career development. These issues include: life roles, transition models and age models concepts. Most people may feel that their career choices do not really satisfy their expectation, but due to their age factor they end up forcing themselves to continue with their jobs, despite the fact that they are not happy with themselves. Adult planning is one of the solutions to such people. Age does not matter when choosing a career; once these people are made understand this, their lives will change forever.

Transition models play a great role in career development. People who attend the adult education classes are made to understand that some life happenings and changes require one to have a reason and need for career planning. Such occurrences include unemployment and promotion in one`s job.

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