Descriptive research is also known as statistical research and it describes data and characteristics about the population being studied. Descriptive research question answers the question who, what, where, why, and how. Descriptive research question is used for frequencies, averages and other survey investigation before writing the research. Descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. The research must have an impact on lives, so the questions must be tactical. For example, when the researcher raises the questions about finding the most resent disease plaguing the society, the end reader of the research will know what to do to prevent such disease and by so doing, more people will live a healthy and disease-free life. Descriptive research question aims at gaining a better understanding of a topic. For example, a cocoa company producing chocolate sweets learns that there is a growing demand for chocolate biscuit in an area but does not know how to go about it, so there has to be carried out a research by distributing questionnaires to various people in that area in order to gain a better understanding.
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The relationship questions are questions showing a relation or connectivity between one research and another. In relationship questions, one variable affects the other unlike descriptive question. For instance, if the researcher is being asked to examine the relationship between the tax payers and the tax paid, the answer will be that the level of tax bears no relationship to people’s ability to pay. Descriptive research questions differ from relationship questions since data description cannot explain what triggered a situation, so the descriptive research cannot be employed to create a relationship when one variable affects the other. Comparison questions, on the other hand, are questions used in comparing events, ideas, and methodology. In comparative questions, one deals with dependent as well as independent variables. A dependent variable (often called a predictor variables or an experimental) is a variable manipulated in an experiment with the aim to observe its effect on a dependent variable (often called an outcome variable). If one wants to write a descriptive research question, he/she may simply have a number of dependent variables needed to measure, but, in relationship questions and comparison questions, two variables have to be used (the dependent and the independent variable). For example, if we are investigating the relationship between gender and attitude toward music piracy amongst teenagers, then the independent variables will be gender and the dependent variable – attitude towards music piracy and the interest group are the adolescents.
A researcher can know that prior research exists on his/her intended research topic by collecting data, and this can be got from either primary or secondary data, surveys, or administration. Secondary data are the data gathered by other people or from other’s studies. It is usually less time-consuming and less costly than collecting primary data. There is abundant information available in company records, literature, trade associations, government publications, and the internet. To know if prior research exists, he/she can check all these out (depending on his research topic) before proceeding with the research. Primary data usually is got through observation and communication. Communication generally involves the direct questioning of the respondents through pen-paper survey (questionnaire). Observation involves direct recording. Also, every research or book written, or a copy is given to the national library, so the researcher can request for a check-up to determine whether there is a previous research or not.
The factors to be used to gauge the quality of previous research
Problem identification factor
Impact factor talks about the extent to which the research is being understood by the reader and the extent to which the research affects the lives of his readers.
Time factor talks about the time invested in the research to produce a good work
Money is required to produce a quality research, so money factor is among the factors used to measure the quality of a research.
The reason why a research is written must be identified including the problems in making a good research.
Ability to get the core information from the source is very important.
The formulation of a research question should precede the consultation of scholarly literature. Before a research is carried out, there must be some questions in one’s mind that need answers to the research. With the questions in mind, the researcher can then go ahead to consult books written by gurus and predecessors.